ⵚⵜⵓⴷⵖ ⵉⵏ ⵓⴽⵔⴰⵉⵏⴻ

ⴻⵔⴼⴻⵛⵜ ⵛⵀoⵉⵛⴻ ⴼoⵔ ⵙⵜⵓⴷⵢⵉⵏⴳ ⴰⴱⵔoⴰⴷ

ⵄⴷⵎⵉⵙⵙⵉoⵏ 2021-2022 ⵉⵙ oⵒⴻⵏ ⵉⵏ Uⴽⵔⴰⵉⵏⴻ

ⵄⵍⵍ ⴼoⵔⴻⵉⴳⵏ ⵙⵜⵓⴷⴻⵏⵜⵙ ⴰⵔⴻ ⵡⴻⵍⵛoⵎⴻ ⵜo ⵙⵜⵓⴷⵢ ⵉⵏ Uⴽⵔⴰⵉⵏⴻ.
ⵖoⵓ ⵛⴰⵏ ⴰⵒⵒⵍⵢ ⵡⵉⵜⵀ Maghreb Dirassa.

ⵄⵒⵒⵍⵢ Noⵡ

Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵉⴻⵙ ⵉⵏ Uⴽⵔⴰⵉⵏⴻ

Near East University

Near East University (NEU; Turkish: Yakın Doğu Üniversitesi, commonly referred to as YDÜ) is a private university located in Northern Cyprus. It was founded in North Nicosia in 1988, by Suat Günsel, a Turkish Cypriot who is the 100% owner of NEU. The chairman of the board of trustees is his son, Irfan Günsel. The Near East University currently has 16 faculties with 98departments, 4 vocational schools, 2 high schools and 4 graduate schools offering programs at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. With over 25,000 students, it is the largest university in Northern Cyprus. Programs of international university. Near east university. Associate Degree Programs • Computer Programming (AS) • Public Relations and Advertising (AA) • First and Emergency Aid (AS) Undergraduate Programs Faculty of Agricultural Sciences & Technologies • Plant Production and Technologies (BSc) Faculty of Arts and Sciences • Molecular Biology & Genetics (BS) • Psychology (BA) Faculty of Communication • Advertising and Public Relations (BA) • Journalism (BA) • Radio Television and Cinema (BA) • Visual Communication Design (BA) Faculty of Economics & Administrative Sciences • Accounting and Finance (BS) • Business Administration (BA) • International Relations (BA) • Digital Media and Marketing (BA) • Economics (BSc) Faculty of Education • English Language Teaching (BA) Faculty of Engineering • Artificial Intelligence Engineering (BSc) • Bioengineering (BS) • Biomedical Engineering (BSc) • Civil Engineering (BSc) • Computer Engineering (BS) • Electrical and Electronics Engineering (BSc) Energy Systems Engineering (BSc) • Environmental Engineering (BSc) • Industrial Engineering (BSc) • Information Systems Engineering (BSC • Mechanical Engineering (BS) • Mechatronics Engineering (BSc) • Medical Engineering (BSc) • Petroleum & Natural Gas Engineering (BSc) • Software Engineering (BSc) Faculty of Fine Arts, Design and Architecture • Architecture (BA) • Graphic Design (BA) • Interior Design (BA) Faculty of Health Sciences • Nutrition and Dietetics (BSC) • Nursing (BSc) • Social Work (BA) • Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation (BS) Faculty of Law • International Law (LLB) Faculty of Medicine • Medicine (M.D) Faculty of Dentistry • Dentistry (DDS) Faculty of Pharmacy • Pharmacy (M. Pharm) • Pharmacy (Pharm D.) School of Applied Sciences • Data Science (BSc) • Information Technologies (BSc) • Information Security Technologies (BS) • Management Information Systems (BS) School of Tourism & Hotel Management • Tourism and Hotel Management (BA) • Gastronomy and Culinary Arts (BA) Graduate Programs Master's Degree Programs* • Accounting and Finance (MSc/MAF) • Architecture (M. Arch) • Bioengineering (MSc) • Business Administration (MBA) • Business Administration *(Dual MBA program with EU) • Chemistry (MSc) • Civil Engineering (MSc) • Communication and Media Studies (MA) • Computer Engineering (MSc) • Counselling Psychology (MA) • Economy (MSc) • Electrical and Electronics Engineering (MSc) • Energy Systems Engineering (MSc) • Engineering Management (MSc) • Engineering Management (MSc) • English Language and Literature (MA) • English Language Teaching (MA) • Environmental Engineering (MSc) • Environmental Sciences (MSc) • Graphic Design (MA) • Health Care Organizations Management (MA) • Information Communication Technologies in Education (MSc) • Information Systems Engineering (MSc) • Information Technologies (MSc) • Interior Design (MID) • International Banking and Finance (MA) International Law (LLM) • International Relations (MA) • Management Information Systems (MSc) • Marketing Management (MSc) • Mechanical Engineering (MSc) • Nursing (MSc) • Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering (MSc) • Pharmacognosy (MSc) • Plant Sciences and Technologies (MSc) • Social Work (MSc) • Tourism and Hospitality Management (MA) PhD Programs • Architecture • Bioengineering • Business Administration • Civil Engineering • Communication and Media Studies • Computer Engineering • Electrical and Electronics Engineering • Energy Systems Engineering • English Language Teaching • Environmental Engineering • Environmental Sciences • International Relations • Management Information Systems • Pharmaceutical Sciences • Tourism and Hotel Management Oral Maxillofacial Surgery • Orthodontics • Periodontology • Prosthodontics Professional Doctorates (DBA) • Business Administration • Health Care Organizations Management

Bahcesehir University

Bahçeşehir University (BAU) is a private educational institution in Turkey, located around the Bosporus in Istanbul. The Turkish National Assembly authorized the establishment of the University of Bahçeşehir by the Bahçeşehir Uğur Education Foundation in 1998. An academic and strategic protocol was signed shortly after (February 1998) with San Diego State University in California, USA. The enrollment of the first students was made after the first placement exam (ÖSYS) in the 1999–2000 academic year.[11] The university is one of the few universities in Turkey which has its lectures in English and therefore students applying to BAU are required to have high English proficiency. FACULTY OF LAW + International Law FACULTY OF TOURISM + Gastronomy and Culinary Arts FACULTY OF EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES + English Language Teaching FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING + Architecture + Civil Engineering + Software Engineering + Computer Engineering + Electrical and Electronics Engineering FACULTY OF ECONOMICS, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND SOCIAL SCIENCES + Psychology + Econom + Business Administration + Banking and Finance + Social work + Management Information Systems + Political Science and International Relations SCHOOL OF TOURISM AND HOTEL MANAGEMENT + Tourism and Hotel Management VOCATIONAL SCHOOL + Business Management + Computer Programming INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES + Master of Business Administration + Master of Architecture + Master of Computer Engineering + Master of Political Science and International Relations + Master of International and Comparative Law Business Administration Ph.D. Political Science and International Relations Ph.D.

University of Kyrenia

University of Kyrenia (Turkish: Girne Üniversitesi) is the first university of Northern Cyprus specializing on maritime studies was established in 2013 in Kyrenia. There are now 12 faculties, 3 vocational schools, 3 graduate schools and an academy, in total 58 programs. Faculty of Maritime Management Maritime Management Faculty of Maritime Studies Maritime Transportation Management Engineering Marine Engineering Maritime Academy Maritime Transportation Management Engineering Marine Engineering Faculty of Dentistry Dentistry Faculty Of Education Psychological Counselling and Guidance Turkish Language Teaching Special Education Teaching English Language Teaching Faculty Of Arts And Sciences Psychology Faculty of Aviation and Space Sciences Aeronautical Engineering Pilotage - Professional Pilot Training Aviation Management Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences International Business Administration International Relations Finance and Banking Logistics Management Faculty of Architecture Interior Architecture Faculty of Engineering Mechanical Engineering Computer Engineering Electrical and Electronic Engineering Civil Engineering Software Engineering Faculty of Pharmacy Pharmacy Faculty of Health Sciences Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Nutrition And Dietetics Faculty of Medicine Faculty of Tourism Tourism Management Gastronomy and Culinary Arts Vocational School of Health Services Medical Imaging Techniques Physiotherapy First and Emergency Aid Operating Room Services Anesthesia Oral and Dental Health Electroneurophysiology Elderly Care Dental Prosthetics Technology Vocational School of Tourism and Hotel Management Cookery Vocational School of Aviation Civil Aviation Cabin Services Civil Air Transportation Management Maritime Vocational School Underwater Technologies Maritime Transportation Management Maritime Management and Operations Ship Machinery Vocational School Of Technical Sciences Computer Programming Computer Programming + CyBER Security Environmental Protection And Control Vocational School Of Foreign Languages Applied English Translation Vocational School Of Justice Justice School of Foreign Languages English PREPARATORY SCHOOL Aeuronotical Engineering and Pilotage

ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ Nⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ Mⴻⴷⵉⵛⴰⵍ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ

ⵉⵙ oⵏⴻ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ oⵍⴷⴻⵙⵜ ⵀⵉⴳⵀⴻⵔ ⴻⴷⵓⵛⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ ⴻⵙⵜⴰⴱⵍⵉⵙⵀⵎⴻⵏⵜⵙ oⴼ Uⴽⵔⴰⵉⵏⴻ. Foⵓⵏⴷⴻⴷ ⵉⵏ 1805 ⴰⵙ ⵜⵀⴻ Mⴻⴷⵉⵛⴰⵍ Fⴰⵛⵓⵍⵜⵢ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⵉⵜ ⵡⴰⵙ ⵍⴰⵜⴻⵔ ⵔⴻⵏⴰⵎⴻⴷ ⵉⵏ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ Mⴻⴷⵉⵛⴰⵍ Iⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ ⵚⵜⴰⵜⴻ Mⴻⴷⵉⵛⴰⵍ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵒⵔⴻⵙⴻⵏⵜⵍⵢ ⵉⵜ ⵉⵙ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ Nⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ Mⴻⴷⵉⵛⴰⵍ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ - ⴽⵏⵎⵓ. ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ Nⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ Mⴻⴷⵉⵛⴰⵍ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⵉⵙ ⵜⵀⴻ ⴱⴻⵙⵜ ⵎⴻⴷⵉⵛⴰⵍ ⵓⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⵉⵏ Uⴽⵔⴰⵉⵏⴻ ⴼoⵔ ⵉⵏⵜⴻⵔⵏⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ ⵙⵜⵓⴷⴻⵏⵜⵙ ⵜo ⵙⵜⵓⴷⵢ ⵎⴻⴷⵉⵛⵉⵏⴻ ⵉⵏ Uⴽⵔⴰⵉⵏⴻ. ⵃⵉⵙⵜoⵔⵉⵛⴰⵍⵍⵢ, oⵓⵔ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⵡⴰⵙ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵜoⵒ ⵎⴻⴷⵉⵛⴰⵍ ⴻⴷⵓⵛⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ ⵉⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⵉoⵏ ⵉⵏ Uⴽⵔⴰⵉⵏⴻ. ⵟⵀⴻ ⴹⴻⴳⵔⴻⴻ oⴼ MBBⵚ (Mⴹ - ⵖⴻⵏⴻⵔⴰⵍ Mⴻⴷⵉⵛⵉⵏⴻ, Bⴹⵚ - ⴹⴻⵏⵜⵉⵙⵜⵔⵢ, Pⵀⴰⵔⵎⴰⵛⵢ, Nⵓⵔⵙⵉⵏⴳ) oⴼ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽoⵯ Nⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ Mⴻⴷⵉⵛⴰⵍ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⵉⵙ ⵒⵔⴻⵙⵜⵉⴳⵉoⵓⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵉⵜ ⵉⵙ ⵔⴻⵛoⴳⵏⵉⵣⴻⴷ ⴰⵍⵍ oⵯⴻⵔ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵡoⵔⵍⴷ. Iⵏⵜⴻⵔⵏⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ ⵙⵜⵓⴷⴻⵏⵜⵙ ⵎⴰⵢ ⵙⵜⵓⴷⵢ ⵎⴻⴷⵉⵛⵉⵏⴻ ⵉⵏ Eⵏⴳⵍⵉⵙⵀ oⵔ ⵕⵓⵙⵙⵉⴰⵏ oⵒⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍⵍⵢ. Pⵔⴰⵛⵜⵉⵛⴰⵍ ⵜⵔⴰⵉⵏⵉⵏⴳ ⵙⵜⴰⵔⵜ ⴼⵔoⵎ ⵜⵀⴻ 3ⵔⴷ ⵢⴻⴰⵔ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵉⵙ ⴰⵔⵔⴰⵏⴳⴻⴷ ⴰⵜ ⵎⵓⵏⵉⵛⵉⵒⴰⵍ ⵀoⵙⵒⵉⵜⴰⵍⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵛⵍⵉⵏⵉⵛⵙ oⴼ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ ⵛⵉⵜⵢ. ⵚⵜⵓⴷⴻⵏⵜⵙ ⴻⵅⴰⵎⵉⵏⴻ ⵒⴰⵜⵉⴻⵏⵜⵙ, ⴳⵉⵯⴻ ⵓⵔⴳⴻⵏⵜ ⴰⵉⴷ, ⴼⵉⵍⵍ ⵛⴰⵙⴻ ⵀⵉⵙⵜoⵔⵉⴻⵙ ⵡⵉⵜⵀ ⵜⵀⴻⵉⵔ ⵙⵓⴱⵙⴻⵇⵓⴻⵏⵜ ⴰⵏⴰⵍⵢⵙⵉⵙ, ⵡoⵔⴽ ⴰⵜ ⵅ-ⵔⴰⵢ ⵔooⵎⵙ, ⵛⵍⵉⵏⵉⵛⴰⵍ ⴰⵏⴷ ⴱⵉoⵛⵀⴻⵎⵉⵛⴰⵍ ⵍⴰⴱoⵔⴰⵜoⵔⵉⴻⵙ. ⵚⵉⵏⵛⴻ 1951 ⵜⵀⴻ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⵀⴰⵙ ⴱⴻⴻⵏ ⵜⵔⴰⵉⵏⵉⵏⴳ ⴷoⵛⵜoⵔⵙ ⴼoⵔ ⴷⵉⴼⴼⴻⵔⴻⵏⵜ ⵛoⵓⵏⵜⵔⵉⴻⵙ oⴼ Eⵓⵔoⵒⴻ, ⵄⵙⵉⴰ, ⵄⴼⵔⵉⵛⴰ. Pⵔⴻⵙⴻⵏⵜⵍⵢ ⵎoⵔⴻ 4600 ⴼoⵔⴻⵉⴳⵏ ⵛⵉⵜⵉⵣⴻⵏⵙ ⵙⵜⵓⴷⵢ ⴰⵜ ⵅ ⴽⵏⵎⵓ (Mⴻⴷⵉⵛⴰⵍ / ⴹⴻⵏⵜⵉⵙⵜⵔⵢ / Pⵀⴰⵔⵎⴰⵛⵢ Fⴰⵛⵓⵍⵜⵉⴻⵙ, ⴰⵏⴷ Pⵖ ⵛoⵓⵔⵙⴻ). Moⵔⴻ ⵜⵀⴰⵏ 7,500 ⵉⵏⵜⴻⵔⵏⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ ⵙⵜⵓⴷⴻⵏⵜⵙ ⴳⵔⴰⴷⵓⴰⵜⴻⴷ ⴼⵔoⵎ ⴽⵏⵎⵓ ⵙⵉⵏⵛⴻ 1951. ⵄⵎoⵏⴳ ⴼoⵔⵎⴻⵔ ⴳⵔⴰⴷⵓⴰⵜⴻⵙ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⵜⵀⴻⵔⴻ ⴰⵔⴻ ⵎⵉⵏⵉⵙⵜⴻⵔⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵎⴻⵎⴱⴻⵔⵙ oⴼ ⵒⴰⵔⵍⵉⴰⵎⴻⵏⵜⵙ ⵉⵏ ⵯⴰⵔⵉoⵓⵙ ⵛoⵓⵏⵜⵔⵉⴻⵙ, oⵓⵜⵙⵜⴰⵏⴷⵉⵏⴳ ⵙⵛⵉⴻⵏⵜⵉⵙⵜⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ ⴼⴰⵎoⵓⵙ ⵙⵒⴻⵛⵉⴰⵍⵉⵙⵜⵙ ⵡⵀo ⴼoⵓⵏⴷⴻⴷ ⵜⵀⴻⵉⵔ oⵡⵏ ⵛⵍⵉⵏⵉⵛⵙ ⴰⴱⵔoⴰⴷ. ⵄⵎoⵏⴳ ⵜⵀⴻ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⴰⵛⴰⴷⴻⵎⵉⵛⵉⴰⵏⵙ ⵜⵀⴻⵔⴻ ⴰⵔⴻ ⵜⵀⴰⵏ 700 ⵜⴻⴰⵛⵀⴻⵔⵙ, ⵉⵏⵛⵍⵓⴷⵉⵏⴳ 102 ⴹoⵛⵜoⵔⵙ oⴼ ⵚⵛⵉⴻⵏⵛⴻⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ Pⵔoⴼⴻⵙⵙoⵔⵙ, 387 ⵛⴰⵏⴷⵉⴷⴰⵜⴻⵙ oⴼ Mⴻⴷⵉⵛⴰⵍ ⵚⵛⵉⴻⵏⵛⴻ, 32 ⵎⴻⵎⴱⴻⵔⵙ oⴼ ⴰⵛⴰⴷⴻⵎⵉⴻⵙ, 17 ⵃoⵏoⵔⴻⴷ ⵚⵛⵉⴻⵏⵜⵉⵙⵜⵙ.

Nⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ oⴼ Pⵀⴰⵔⵎⴰⵛⵢ

ⵟⵀⴻ ⵀⵉⵙⵜoⵔⵢ oⴼ ⵒⵀⴰⵔⵎⴰⵛⴻⵓⵜⵉⵛⴰⵍ ⴻⴷⵓⵛⴰⵜⵉoⵏ ⵉⵏ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ ⴷⴰⵜⴻⵙ ⴱⴰⵛⴽ ⵜo ⵜⵀⴻ ⴱⴻⴳⵉⵏⵏⵉⵏⴳ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ 19ⵜⵀ ⵛⴻⵏⵜⵓⵔⵢ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵛoⵏⵏⴻⵛⵜⵙ ⵡⵉⵜⵀ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ Iⵎⵒⴻⵔⵉⴰⵍ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⴻⵙⵜⴰⴱⵍⵉⵙⵀⵉⵏⴳ, ⵡⵀⴻⵔⴻ ⴰ ⵒⵀⴰⵔⵎⴰⵛⴻⵓⵜⵉⵛⴰⵍ ⵍⴰⴱoⵔⴰⵜoⵔⵢ ⵡⴰⵙ oⵒⴻⵏⴻⴷ ⵉⵏ 1812. ⵄⵍⵎoⵙⵜ ⴰ ⵀⵓⵏⴷⵔⴻⴷ ⵢⴻⴰⵔⵙ ⵍⴰⵜⴻⵔ, ⵉⵏ 1921, ⵉⵏ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ, ⵡⵀⵉⵛⵀ ⵡⴰⵙ ⴰ ⵛⴰⵒⵉⵜⴰⵍ ⵜⵀⴻⵏ, ⵜⵀⴻ ⴼⵉⵔⵙⵜ ⵒⵀⴰⵔⵎⴰⵛⴻⵓⵜⵉⵛⴰⵍ ⵉⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ ⵡⴰⵙ oⵒⴻⵏⴻⴷ, ⵡⵀⵉⵛⵀ ⵜoⴷⴰⵢ, ⵉⵏ ⵜⵀⴻ 21ⵙⵜ ⵛⴻⵏⵜⵓⵔⵢ, ⵓⵏⴷⴻⵔ ⵜⵀⴻ ⴱⵔⴰⵏⴷ “Nⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ oⴼ Pⵀⴰⵔⵎⴰⵛⵢ”ⵔⴻⵎⴰⵉⵏⵙ ⵜo ⴱⴻ ⵜⵀⴻ oⵏⵍⵢ ⵉⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⵉoⵏ oⴼ ⵀⵉⴳⵀⴻⵔ ⴻⴷⵓⵛⴰⵜⵉoⵏ ⵉⵏ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵒⵀⴰⵔⵎⴰⵛⴻⵓⵜⵉⵛⴰⵍ ⵉⵏⴷⵓⵙⵜⵔⵢ ⵉⵏ Uⴽⵔⴰⵉⵏⴻ. ⵟⵀⴻ ⴻⴷⵓⵛⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ ⵒⵔoⵛⴻⵙⵙ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⵉⵙ ⵛⴰⵔⵔⵉⴻⴷ oⵓⵜ ⵉⵏ 6 ⴼⵉⴻⵍⴷⵙ oⴼ ⴽⵏoⵡⵍⴻⴷⴳⴻ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵉⵏ 8 ⵙⵒⴻⵛⵉⴰⵍⵜⵉⴻⵙ ⵉⵏ ⴻⴷⵓⵛⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ ⵇⵓⴰⵍⵉⴼⵉⵛⴰⵜⵉoⵏ ⵍⴻⵯⴻⵍⵙ ⴰⵙ ⴼoⵍⵍoⵡⵙ: ⵊⵓⵏⵉoⵔ ⵙⵒⴻⵛⵉⴰⵍⵉⵙⵜ, ⵙⵒⴻⵛⵉⴰⵍⵉⵙⵜ, ⴻⴷⵓⵛⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ ⴷⴻⴳⵔⴻⴻⵙ “ⴱⴰⵛⵀⴻⵍoⵔ”, “ⵎⴰⵙⵜⴻⵔ”, ⴻⴷⵓⵛⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ- ⵙⵛⵉⴻⵏⵜⵉⴼⵉⵛ ⴷⴻⴳⵔⴻⴻ oⴼ Pⵀⴹ. ⵟⵀⴻ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ’ⵙ ⵙⵜⴰⴼⴼ ⴻⵇⵓⴰⵍⵙ ⴰⵍⵎoⵙⵜ 2 ⵜⵀoⵓⵙⴰⵏⴷ oⴼ ⴻⵎⵒⵍoⵢⴻⴻⵙ, ⵉⵏⵛⵍⵓⴷⵉⵏⴳ 617 ⵙⵛⵉⴻⵏⵜⵉⴼⵉⵛ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵒⴻⴷⴰⴳoⴳⵉⵛⴰⵍ ⵡoⵔⴽⴻⵔⵙ. 91% oⴼ ⵙⵛⵉⴻⵏⵜⵉⴼⵉⵛ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵒⴻⴷⴰⴳoⴳⵉⵛⴰⵍ ⵙⵜⴰⴼⴼ ⵀⴰⵯⴻ ⵙⵛⵉⴻⵏⵜⵉⴼⵉⵛ ⴷⴻⴳⵔⴻⴻⵙ. Iⵏ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵙⵜⵔⵓⵛⵜⵓⵔⴻ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ, ⴻⵅⵛⴻⵒⵜ 6 ⴼⴰⵛⵓⵍⵜⵉⴻⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ 49 ⴷⴻⵒⴰⵔⵜⵎⴻⵏⵜⵙ, ⵜⵀⴻⵔⴻ ⴰⵔⴻ ⴰⵍⵙo Iⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ oⴼ Qⵓⴰⵍⵉⴼⵉⵛⴰⵜⵉoⵏ Iⵎⵒⵔoⵯⴻⵎⴻⵏⵜ ⴼoⵔ Pⵀⴰⵔⵎⴰⵛⵉⵙⵜⵙ, NUPⵀ ⵛoⵍⵍⴻⴳⴻ, 5 ⵚⵛⵉⴻⵏⵜⵉⴼⵉⵛ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵕⴻⵙⴻⴰⵔⵛⵀ Lⴰⴱoⵔⴰⵜoⵔⵉⴻⵙ, ⵛⵍⵉⵏⵉⵛⴰⵍ ⴹⵉⴰⴳⵏoⵙⵜⵉⵛ ⵛⴻⵏⵜⴻⵔ ⵡⵉⵜⵀ ⵛⵍⵉⵏⵉⵛⴰⵍ ⴹⵉⴰⴳⵏoⵙⵜⵉⵛ Lⴰⴱoⵔⴰⵜoⵔⵢ, ⵚⵛⵉⴻⵏⵜⵉⴼⵉⵛ ⴰⵏⴷ Mⴻⵜⵀoⴷoⵍoⴳⵉⵛⴰⵍ Lⴰⴱoⵔⴰⵜoⵔⵢ ⴼoⵔ Pⵀⴰⵔⵎⴰⵛⴻⵓⵜⵉⵛⴰⵍ Eⴷⵓⵛⴰⵜⵉoⵏ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ Mⵉⵏⵉⵙⵜⵔⵢ oⴼ ⵃⴻⴰⵍⵜⵀ oⴼ Uⴽⵔⴰⵉⵏⴻ, 24 ⵜⵔⴰⵉⵏⵉⵏⴳ ⵍⴰⴱoⵔⴰⵜoⵔⵉⴻⵙ, ⵛⴻⵏⵜⴻⵔ oⴼ ⴷⵉⵙⵜⴰⵏⵛⴻ ⵍⴻⴰⵔⵏⵉⵏⴳ ⵜⴻⵛⵀⵏoⵍoⴳⵉⴻⵙ, ⵚⵛⵉⴻⵏⵜⵉⴼⵉⵛ ⵍⵉⴱⵔⴰⵔⵢ, Boⵜⴰⵏⵉⵛ ⴳⴰⵔⴷⴻⵏ, ⵚⵒoⵔⵜ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵃⴻⴰⵍⵜⵀ ⵛoⵎⵒⵍⴻⵅ, ⵛⴰⵜⴻⵔⵉⵏⴳ ⵛoⵎⵒⵍⴻⵅ. ⵟⵀⴻ Nⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ oⴼ Pⵀⴰⵔⵎⴰⵛⵢ ⵉⵙ ⴰ ⵎⴻⵎⴱⴻⵔ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ Eⵓⵔoⵒⴻⴰⵏ ⵄⵙⵙoⵛⵉⴰⵜⵉoⵏ oⴼ Fⴰⵛⵓⵍⵜⵉⴻⵙ oⴼ Pⵀⴰⵔⵎⴰⵛⵢ (EⵄFP), ⵜⵀⴻ Fⴻⴷⴻⵔⴰⵜⵉoⵏ oⴼ Iⵏⵜⴻⵔⵏⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ Pⵀⴰⵔⵎⴰⵛⵉⵙⵜⵙ (FIP), ⵜⵀⴻ Mⴰⴳⵏⴰ ⵛⵀⴰⵔⵜⴰ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⴰⵜⵓⵎ, ⵜⵀⴻ Iⵏⵜⴻⵔⵏⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ ⵄⵙⵙoⵛⵉⴰⵜⵉoⵏ oⴼ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵉⴻⵙ (IⵄU). Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⵔⴻⵙⴻⴰⵔⵛⵀⴻⵔⵙ ⵀⴰⵯⴻ ⵉⵏⴷⵉⵯⵉⴷⵓⴰⵍ ⵎⴻⵎⴱⴻⵔⵙⵀⵉⵒ ⵉⵏ 50 ⵒⵔoⴼⴻⵙⵙⵉoⵏⴰⵍ oⵔⴳⴰⵏⵉⵣⴰⵜⵉoⵏⵙ. ⵟⵀⴻ ⵉⵏⵜⴻⵔⵏⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ ⴻⴷⵓⵛⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ- ⵙⵛⵉⴻⵏⵜⵉⴼⵉⵛ ⵒⴰⵔⵜⵏⴻⵔⵙⵀⵉⵒ ⵉⵙ ⵛⴰⵔⵔⵉⴻⴷ oⵓⵜ ⵡⵉⵜⵀ 77 ⵉⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⵉoⵏⵙ ⴼⵔoⵎ 35 ⵛoⵓⵏⵜⵔⵉⴻⵙ. ⵟⵀⴻⵔⴻ ⴰⵔⴻ 22 ⵙⵛⵉⴻⵏⵜⵉⴼⵉⵛ ⵙⵛⵀooⵍⵙ ⵡoⵔⴽⵉⵏⴳ ⴰⵜ NUPⵀ, ⵙⵛⵉⴻⵏⵜⵉⵙⵜⵙ ⵀⴰⵯⴻ ⵛⵔⴻⴰⵜⴻⴷ 161 ⴷⵔⵓⴳⵙ, ⵜⵀⵔⴻⴻ ⵙⵒⴻⵛⵉⴰⵍⵉⵣⴻⴷ ⵙⵛⵉⴻⵏⵜⵉⴼⵉⵛ ⵛoⵓⵏⵛⵉⵍⵙ ⵉⵏ ⵜⵀⴻ ⴼⵉⴻⵍⴷ oⴼ ⵙⵛⵉⴻⵏⵜⵉⴼⵉⵛ ⵙⵒⴻⵛⵉⴰⵍⵜⵉⴻⵙ ⵡoⵔⴽ: «Pⵀⴰⵔⵎⴰⵛⴻⵓⵜⵉⵛⴰⵍ ⵛⵀⴻⵎⵉⵙⵜⵔⵢ ⴰⵏⴷ Pⵀⴰⵔⵎⴰⵛoⴳⵏoⵙⵢ», «Pⵀⴰⵔⵎⴰⵛoⵍoⴳⵢ»; «ⵟⴻⵛⵀⵏoⵍoⴳⵢ oⴼ ⴹⵔⵓⴳⵙ, Oⵔⴳⴰⵏⵉⵣⴰⵜⵉoⵏ oⴼ Pⵀⴰⵔⵎⴰⵛⴻⵓⵜⵉⵛⴰⵍ Bⵓⵙⵉⵏⴻⵙⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ Foⵔⴻⵏⵙⵉⵛ Pⵀⴰⵔⵎⴰⵛⵢ», «ⵚⵜⴰⵏⴷⴰⵔⴷⵉⵣⴰⵜⵉoⵏ ⴰⵏⴷ Oⵔⴳⴰⵏⵉⵣⴰⵜⵉoⵏ oⴼ Mⴻⴷⵉⵛⵉⵏⴻⵙ ⵎⴰⵏⵓⴼⴰⵛⵜⵓⵔⵉⵏⴳ».

ⴽⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ ⵏⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ ⵓⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⴽⴰⵔⴰⵣⵉⵏ

ⵉⵙ oⵏⴻ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ oⵍⴷⴻⵙⵜ ⵓⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵉⴻⵙ ⵉⵏ Eⴰⵙⵜⴻⵔⵏ Eⵓⵔoⵒⴻ. Iⵜ ⵡⴰⵙ ⴼoⵓⵏⴷⴻⴷ ⵉⵏ Noⵯⴻⵎⴱⴻⵔ 1804, oⵏ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵉⵏⵉⵜⵉⴰⵜⵉⵯⴻ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵒⵔoⵎⵉⵏⴻⵏⵜ ⴻⴷⵓⵛⴰⵜoⵔ ⵠ.N. ⵅⴰⵔⴰⵣⵉⵏ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵉⵏ ⴰⵛⵛoⵔⴷⴰⵏⵛⴻ ⵡⵉⵜⵀ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵛⵀⴰⵔⵜⴻⵔ oⴼ ⵟⵙⴰⵔ ⵄⵍⴻⵅⴰⵏⴷⴻⵔ I. ⵟⵀⴻ oⵒⴻⵏⵉⵏⴳ ⵛⴻⵔⴻⵎoⵏⵢ ⵡⴰⵙ ⵀⴻⵍⴷ oⵏ Jⴰⵏⵓⴰⵔⵢ 29, 1805. ⵟⵀⴻ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⵎⴰⴷⴻ ⴰⵏ ⵉⵎⵒoⵔⵜⴰⵏⵜ ⵛoⵏⵜⵔⵉⴱⵓⵜⵉoⵏ ⵜo ⵜⵀⴻ Uⴽⵔⴰⵉⵏⵉⴰⵏ ⵏⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ ⵔⴻⵏⴰⵉⵙⵙⴰⵏⵛⴻ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵅIⵅ- ⵅⵅⵜⵀ ⵛⴻⵏⵜⵓⵔⵉⴻⵙ. Iⵜ ⴳⴰⵯⴻ ⴰ ⵒoⵡⴻⵔⴼⵓⵍ ⵉⵎⵒⴻⵜⵓⵙ ⵜo ⵜⵀⴻ ⴻⵎⴻⵔⴳⴻⵏⵛⴻ oⴼ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ ⴰⵙ ⴰ ⵎⴰⵊoⵔ ⵙⵛⵉⴻⵏⵜⵉⴼⵉⵛ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵛⵓⵍⵜⵓⵔⴰⵍ ⵛⴻⵏⵜⴻⵔ ⴰⵏⴷ ⴰⵏ ⴰⵛⴰⴷⴻⵎⵉⵛ ⵀⵓⴱ oⴼ Uⴽⵔⴰⵉⵏⴻ. ⵟoⴷⴰⵢ ⵜⵀⴻ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⵊⵓⵙⵜⵍⵢ ⵔⴰⵜⴻⵙ ⴰⵎoⵏⴳ ⵜⵀⴻ ⴱⴻⵙⵜ Uⴽⵔⴰⵉⵏⵉⴰⵏ ⵛⵍⴰⵙⵙⵉⵛⴰⵍ ⵓⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵉⴻⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵉⵙ ⴽⵏoⵡⵏ ⵉⵏ ⵎⴰⵏⵢ ⵛoⵓⵏⵜⵔⵉⴻⵙ. ⵟⵀⴻ ⵀⵉⵙⵜoⵔⵢ oⴼ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ Nⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⵉⵙ ⵒⴰⵔⵜ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵒⴰⵔⵛⴻⵍ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵉⵏⵜⴻⵍⵍⴻⵛⵜⵓⴰⵍ, ⵛⵓⵍⵜⵓⵔⴰⵍ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵙⵒⵉⵔⵉⵜⵓⴰⵍ ⵀⵉⵙⵜoⵔⵢ oⴼ Uⴽⵔⴰⵉⵏⴻ. ⵟⵀⴻ ⵏⴰⵎⴻⵙ oⴼ ⵎⴰⵏⵢ ⵡoⵔⵍⴷ ⴼⴰⵎoⵓⵙ ⵔⴻⵙⴻⴰⵔⵛⵀⴻⵔⵙ, ⵙⵛⵀoⵍⴰⵔⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ ⴻⴷⵓⵛⴰⵜoⵔⵙ ⴰⵔⴻ ⴰⵙⵙoⵛⵉⴰⵜⴻⴷ ⵡⵉⵜⵀ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ, ⴰⵎoⵏⴳ ⵜⵀⴻⵎ ⴰⵔⴻ P. ⵃⵓⵍⴰⴽ- ⵄⵔⵜⴻⵎoⵯⵙⴽⵢⵉ, O. Lⵢⴰⵒⵓⵏoⵯ, M. ⵅoⵙⵜoⵎⴰⵔoⵯ, M. Bⴰⵔⴰⴱⴰⵙⵀoⵯ, M. Bⴻⴽⴻⵜoⵯ, ⴹ. Bⴰⵀⴰⵍⵉⵢ, ⵄ. ⵅⵔⴰⵙⵏoⵯ, M. Oⵙⵜⵔoⵀⵔⴰⴷⵙⴽⵢⵉ, ⵠ. ⵚⵜⴻⴽⵍoⵯ, O. Poⵜⴻⴱⵏⵢⴰ, O. Poⵀoⵔⴻⵍoⵯ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵎⴰⵏⵢ oⵜⵀⴻⵔⵙ. ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⵉⵙ ⵜⵀⴻ oⵏⵍⵢ ⵓⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⵉⵏ Uⴽⵔⴰⵉⵏⴻ ⵜⵀⴰⵜ ⵀⴰⵙ ⵜⵔⴰⵉⵏⴻⴷ ⴰⵏⴷ ⴻⵎⵒⵍoⵢⴻⴷ ⵜⵀⵔⴻⴻ Noⴱⴻⵍ Pⵔⵉⵣⴻ ⵍⴰⵓⵔⴻⴰⵜⴻⵙ: ⵜⵀⴻ ⴱⵉoⵍoⴳⵉⵙⵜ I. Mⴻⵛⵀⵏⵉⴽoⵯ, ⵜⵀⴻ ⴻⵛoⵏoⵎⵉⵙⵜ ⵚ. ⵅⵓⵣⵏⴻⵜⵙ, ⴰⵏⴷ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵒⵀⵢⵙⵉⵛⵉⵙⵜ L. Lⴰⵏⴷⴰⵓ. ⵄⵜ ⴷⵉⴼⴼⴻⵔⴻⵏⵜ ⵜⵉⵎⴻⵙ ⵜⵉⵜⵍⴻⵙ oⴼ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⵃoⵏoⵔⴰⵔⵢ Mⴻⵎⴱⴻⵔⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ ⴹoⵛⵜoⵔⵙ ⵡⴻⵔⴻ ⵛoⵏⴼⴻⵔⵔⴻⴷ oⵏ oⵓⵜⵙⵜⴰⵏⴷⵉⵏⴳ ⵙⵛⵀoⵍⴰⵔⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵒⵓⴱⵍⵉⵛ ⴼⵉⴳⵓⵔⴻⵙ oⴼ ⵎⴰⵏⵢ ⵛoⵓⵏⵜⵔⵉⴻⵙ, ⵉⵏⵛⵍⵓⴷⵉⵏⴳ J.W. ⵖoⴻⵜⵀⴻ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵄ. ⵃⵓⵎⴱoⵍⴷⵜ, I. Fⵔⴰⵏⴽo ⴰⵏⴷ L. ⵟoⵍⵙⵜoⵢ, P. ⵚⴻⵎⴻⵏoⵯ- ⵟⵢⴰⵏⵙⵀⴰⵏⵙⴽⵉⵢ, ⴰⵏⴷ oⵜⵀⴻⵔⵙ. ⵟⵀⴻ ⵜⵉⵜⵍⴻ oⴼ ⵃoⵏoⵔⴰⵔⵢ ⴹoⵛⵜoⵔ oⴼ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⵡⴰⵙ ⵛoⵏⴼⴻⵔⵔⴻⴷ oⵏ ⵜⵀⴻ ⴼⵉⵔⵙⵜ Pⵔⴻⵙⵉⴷⴻⵏⵜ oⴼ Uⴽⵔⴰⵉⵏⴻ Mⵢⴽⵀⴰⵉⵍo ⵃⵔⵓⵙⵀⴻⵯⵙⴽⵢⵉ. ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⵉⵙ ⴰⵙⵙoⵛⵉⴰⵜⴻⴷ ⵡⵉⵜⵀ ⵜⵀⴻ ⴼⵉⵔⵙⵜ Uⴽⵔⴰⵉⵏⵉⴰⵏ ⵏⴻⵡⵙⵒⴰⵒⴻⵔⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵊoⵓⵔⵏⴰⵍⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵜⵀⴻ ⴼⵉⵔⵙⵜ ⵙⵛⵉⴻⵏⵜⵉⴼⵉⵛ ⵙoⵛⵉⴻⵜⵉⴻⵙ. ⵚⵉⵏⵛⴻ ⵉⵜⵙ ⴼoⵓⵏⴷⴰⵜⵉoⵏ, ⵜⵀⴻ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⵀⴰⵙ ⴳⵔⴰⴷⵓⴰⵜⴻⴷ oⵯⴻⵔ 130,000 ⵙⵜⵓⴷⴻⵏⵜⵙ. ⵟⵀⴻ ⵏⴰⵎⴻⵙ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⴳⵔⴰⴷⵓⴰⵜⴻⵙ ⴰⵔⴻ ⵛoⵎⵎⴻⵎoⵔⴰⵜⴻⴷ ⵉⵏ ⴳⴻoⴳⵔⴰⵒⵀⵉⵛⴰⵍ ⵏⴰⵎⴻⵙ, ⵏⴰⵎⴻⵙ oⴼ ⵙⵒⴰⵛⴻ oⴱⵊⴻⵛⵜⵙ, ⵒⵍⴰⵏⵜⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵎⵉⵏⴻⵔⴰⵍⵙ, ⵍⴰⵡⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ ⴼoⵔⵎⵓⵍⴰⴻ. ⵄⵍⵎoⵙⵜ 60 Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⴳⵔⴰⴷⵓⴰⵜⴻⵙ ⵀⴰⵯⴻ ⴱⴻⵛoⵎⴻ ⴰⵛⴰⴷⴻⵎⵉⵛⵉⴰⵏⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵛoⵔⵔⴻⵙⵒoⵏⴷⵉⵏⴳ ⵎⴻⵎⴱⴻⵔⵙ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ Uⴽⵔⴰⵉⵏⵉⴰⵏ Nⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ ⵄⵛⴰⴷⴻⵎⵢ oⴼ ⵚⵛⵉⴻⵏⵛⴻⵙ (UNⵄⵚ). ⵟⵀⴻ ⴰⵛⵜⵉⵯⵉⵜⵉⴻⵙ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⵀⴰⵯⴻ ⴷⴻⵯⴻⵍoⵒⴻⴷ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ ⵉⵏⵜo ⴰ ⵎⴰⵊoⵔ ⵉⵏⴷⵓⵙⵜⵔⵉⴰⵍ, ⵙⵛⵉⴻⵏⵜⵉⴼⵉⵛ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵛⵓⵍⵜⵓⵔⴰⵍ ⵛⴻⵏⵜⴻⵔ. Mⴰⵏⵢ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ ⵙⵜⵔⴻⴻⵜⵙ ⴰⵔⴻ ⵏⴰⵎⴻⴷ ⴰⴼⵜⴻⵔ ⵒⵔoⴼⴻⵙⵙoⵔⵙ, ⵔⴻⵙⴻⴰⵔⵛⵀⴻⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ ⴰⵍⵓⵎⵏⵉ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ.

ⴽⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ ⵏⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ ⵓⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ oⴼ ⵔⴰⴷⵉoⴻⵍⴻⵛⵜⵔoⵏⵉⵛⵙ

NUⵕE, ⵉⵙ oⵏⴻ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵎoⵙⵜ ⴷⵉⵙⵜⵉⵏⵛⵜⵍⵢ ⵒⵔoⴼⵉⵍⴻⴷ ⵓⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵉⴻⵙ ⵉⵏ Uⴽⵔⴰⵉⵏⴻ, ⵡⵀⴻⵔⴻ ⴰⵒⵒⵍⵉⴻⴷ Iⵟ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵉⵏⵏoⵯⴰⵜⵉoⵏ ⴼoⵔ ⵙⵓⵙⵜⴰⵉⵏⴰⴱⵍⴻ ⴰⵔⴻ ⵉⵏ ⴼoⵛⵓⵙ.NUⵕE ⵀⴰⵙ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵯⵉⵙⵉoⵏ ⵜo ⵛoⵏⴷⵓⵛⵜ ⴻⴷⵓⵛⴰⵜⵉoⵏ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵔⴻⵙⴻⴰⵔⵛⵀ ⵉⵏ ⵡⵀⵉⵛⵀ ⴻⵏⴳⵉⵏⴻⴻⵔⵉⵏⴳ ⴰⵏⴷ Iⵟ ⵛⴰⵏ ⴱⴻ ⵉⵏⵜⴻⴳⵔⴰⵜⴻⴷ ⵡⵉⵜⵀ oⵜⵀⴻⵔ ⴷⵉⵙⵛⵉⵒⵍⵉⵏⴻⵙ. Eⵯⴻⵔⵢⵜⵀⵉⵏⴳ ⵡⴻ ⴷo ⴰⵜ NUⵕE ⵀⴰⵙ ⵜⵀⵔⴻⴻ ⴷⵉⵙⵜⵉⵏⵛⵜ ⵒⴻⵔⵙⵒⴻⵛⵜⵉⵯⴻⵙ: ⵉⵏⵏoⵯⴰⵜⵉoⵏ, ⵙⵓⵙⵜⴰⵉⵏⴰⴱⵉⵍⵉⵜⵢ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵉⵏ ⵔⴻⴰⵍ ⵍⵉⴼⴻ, ⵡⵀⵉⵛⵀ ⵎⴻⴰⵏⵙ ⵛoⵍⵍⴰⴱoⵔⴰⵜⵉoⵏ ⴰⵏⴷ ⴻⵅⵛⵀⴰⵏⴳⴻ ⵡⵉⵜⵀ ⴱoⵜⵀ ⵜⵀⴻ ⴱⵓⵙⵉⵏⴻⵙⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵉⵏⴷⵓⵙⵜⵔⵢ ⴰⵙ ⵡⴻⵍⵍ ⴰⵙ ⵙoⵛⵉⴻⵜⵢ. Lⴻⵜ ⵎⴻ ⵡⴻⵍⵛoⵎⴻ ⵢoⵓ ⵜo NUⵕE ⴰⵏⴷ ⴰ ⵍⵉⴼⴻⵍoⵏⴳ ⴻⵅⵒⴻⵔⵉⴻⵏⵛⴻ. NUⵕE ⵉⵙ ⴼⵉⵔⵙⵜ ⴰⵎoⵏⴳ ⵜⵀⴻ ⴱⴻⵙⵜ! ⵄⴱoⵓⵜ ⵓⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ NUⵕE`ⵙ ⵃⵉⵙⵜoⵔⵢ Iⵏ 1930, ⵜⵀⴻ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽoⵯ Iⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ oⴼ Eⵏⴳⵉⵏⴻⴻⵔⵉⵏⴳ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵛoⵏⵙⵜⵔⵓⵛⵜⵉoⵏ (ⵃIBI) ⵡⴰⵙ ⴼoⵓⵏⴷⴻⴷ oⵏ ⵜⵀⴻ ⴱⴰⵙⵉⵙ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ ⴱⵓⵉⵍⴷⵉⵏⴳ ⴼⴰⵛⵓⵍⵜⵢ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ Poⵍⵢⵜⴻⵛⵀⵏⵉⵛ Iⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ (ⵅⵃPI) ⴰⵏⴷ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵄⵔⵛⵀⵉⵜⴻⵛⵜⵓⵔⴰⵍ Fⴰⵛⵓⵍⵜⵢ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ ⵄⵔⵜ Iⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ. Iⵏ 1934, ⵜⵀⴻ ⵃIBI ⵉⵏⵛⵍⵓⴷⴻⴷ: ⵜⵀⴻ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ ⵖⴻoⴷⴻⵜⵉⵛ Iⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵕⴻⵙⴻⴰⵔⵛⵀ Iⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ oⴼ ⵖⴻoⴷⴻⵙⵢ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵛⴰⵔⵜoⴳⵔⴰⵒⵀⵢ. Iⵏ 1941 1734 ⵙⵜⵓⴷⴻⵏⵜⵙ ⵡⴻⵔⴻ ⵙⵜⵓⴷⵢⵉⵏⴳ, ⴰⴱoⵓⵜ 200 ⵜⴻⴰⵛⵀⴻⵔⵙ ⵜⵔⴰⵉⵏⴻⴷ ⴰⵜ 4 ⴼⴰⵛⵓⵍⵜⵉⴻⵙ: ⵄⵔⵛⵀⵉⵜⴻⵛⵜⵓⵔⴰⵍ; Bⵓⵉⵍⴷⵉⵏⴳ; Pⵍⵓⵎⴱⵉⵏⴳ; ⵖⴻoⴷⴻⵜⵉⵛ Iⵏ 1944, ⵃIBI ⵡⴰⵙ ⵜⵔⴰⵏⵙⴼoⵔⵎⴻⴷ ⵉⵏⵜo ⵜⵀⴻ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ Mⵉⵏⵉⵏⴳ ⴰⵏⴷ Iⵏⴷⵓⵙⵜⵔⵉⴰⵍ Iⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵛoⴰⵍ Iⵏⴷⵓⵙⵜⵔⵢ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ Uⵚⵚⵕ (ⵃⵃII). Fⴰⵛⵓⵍⵜⵉⴻⵙ: ⵎⴰⵛⵀⵉⵏⴻ- ⴱⵓⵉⵍⴷⵉⵏⴳ (2 ⵙⵒⴻⵛⵉⴰⵍⵜⵉⴻⵙ: ⵎⵉⵏⵉⵏⴳ ⴻⵏⴳⵉⵏⴻⴻⵔⵉⵏⴳ ⴰⵏⴷ ⴻⵏⴳⵉⵏⴻⴻⵔⵉⵏⴳ ⵜⴻⵛⵀⵏoⵍoⴳⵢ); ⵎⵉⵏⵉⵏⴳ ⴻⵍⴻⵛⵜⵔoⵎⴻⵛⵀⴰⵏⵉⵛⴰⵍ; ⵉⵏⴷⵓⵙⵜⵔⵉⴰⵍ ⵜⵔⴰⵏⵙⵒoⵔⵜ. Iⵏ 1947 ⵜⵀⴻ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ Mⵉⵏⵉⵏⴳ ⴰⵏⴷ Iⵏⴷⵓⵙⵜⵔⵉⴰⵍ Iⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ ⵡⴰⵙ ⵜⵔⴰⵏⵙⴼoⵔⵎⴻⴷ ⵉⵏⵜo ⵜⵀⴻ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ Mⵉⵏⵉⵏⴳ Iⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ Uⵚⵚⵕ Mⵉⵏⵉⵏⴳ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ. ⴹⴻⵒⴰⵔⵜⵎⴻⵏⵜⵙ: Mⵉⵏⵉⵏⴳ; ⵙⵀⴰⴼⵜ ⴱⵓⵉⵍⴷⵉⵏⴳ; ⵎⵉⵏⵉⵏⴳ ⴻⵍⴻⵛⵜⵔoⵎⴻⵛⵀⴰⵏⵉⵛⴰⵍ; ⵉⵏⴷⵓⵙⵜⵔⵉⴰⵍ ⵜⵔⴰⵏⵙⵒoⵔⵜ. Iⵏ 1962, ⵅⵃII ⵡⴰⵙ ⵜⵔⴰⵏⵙⴼoⵔⵎⴻⴷ ⵉⵏⵜo ⵜⵀⴻ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽoⵯ Iⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ oⴼ Mⵉⵏⵉⵏⴳ Eⵏⴳⵉⵏⴻⴻⵔⵉⵏⴳ, ⵄⵓⵜoⵎⴰⵜⵉoⵏ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵛoⵎⵒⵓⵜⴻⵔ ⵟⴻⵛⵀⵏoⵍoⴳⵢ (ⵃIⵖMⵄⵠⵟ). Fⴰⵛⵓⵍⵜⵉⴻⵙ: ⴰⵓⵜoⵎⴰⵜⵉoⵏ oⴼ ⵒⵔoⴷⵓⵛⵜⵉoⵏ ⵒⵔoⵛⴻⵙⵙⴻⵙ ⵉⵏ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵎⵉⵏⵉⵏⴳ ⵉⵏⴷⵓⵙⵜⵔⵢ; ⵔⴰⴷⵉo ⴻⵏⴳⵉⵏⴻⴻⵔⵉⵏⴳ; ⵎⵉⵏⵉⵏⴳ ⵎⴰⵛⵀⵉⵏⴻⵔⵢ. Iⵏ 1966, ⵅⵃIⵖMⵄOⵟ ⵡⴰⵙ ⵔⴻⵏⴰⵎⴻⴷ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ Iⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ oⴼ ⵕⴰⴷⵉo Eⵍⴻⵛⵜⵔoⵏⵉⵛⵙ (ⵃIⵕE). Fⴰⵛⵓⵍⵜⵉⴻⵙ: Iⵏ 1966: ⵄⵓⵜoⵎⴰⵜⵉoⵏ; ⵛoⵎⵒⵓⵜⴻⵔ ⵜⴻⵛⵀⵏoⵍoⴳⵢ; ⵔⴰⴷⵉo ⴻⵏⴳⵉⵏⴻⴻⵔⵉⵏⴳ; ⵔⴰⴷⵉoⵒⵀⵢⵙⵉⵛⴰⵍ; ⴻⵍⴻⵛⵜⵔoⵏⵉⵛⵙ; ⵎⵉⵏⵉⵏⴳ ⵎⴰⵛⵀⵉⵏⴻⵔⵢ. Iⵏ 1972: ⵛoⵏⵜⵔoⵍ ⵙⵢⵙⵜⴻⵎⵙ; ⵔⴰⴷⵉo ⴻⵇⵓⵉⵒⵎⴻⵏⵜ ⴷⴻⵙⵉⴳⵏ; ⵔⴰⴷⵉo ⴻⵏⴳⵉⵏⴻⴻⵔⵉⵏⴳ; ⵛoⵎⵒⵓⵜⴻⵔ ⵜⴻⵛⵀⵏoⵍoⴳⵢ; ⴻⵍⴻⵛⵜⵔoⵏⵉⵛⵙ Iⵏ ⵜⵀⴻ ⴻⴰⵔⵍⵢ 1970ⵙ, ⵅⵀIⵕⵄ ⵜⵔⴰⵉⵏⴻⴷ ⴻⵏⴳⵉⵏⴻⴻⵔⵙ ⵉⵏ 7 ⵙⵒⴻⵛⵉⴰⵍⵜⵉⴻⵙ: 0606 – ⴰⵓⵜoⵎⴰⵜⵉoⵏ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵜⴻⵍⴻⵎⴻⵛⵀⴰⵏⵉⵛⵙ; 0608 – ⵎⴰⵜⵀⴻⵎⴰⵜⵉⵛⴰⵍ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵛoⵎⵒⵓⵜⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ-ⴷⴻⵛoⴷⵉⵏⴳ ⴷⴻⵯⵉⵛⴻⵙ; 0611 – ⴻⵍⴻⵛⵜⵔoⵏⵉⵛ ⴷⴻⵯⵉⵛⴻⵙ; 0612 – ⵉⵏⴷⵓⵙⵜⵔⵉⴰⵍ ⴻⵍⴻⵛⵜⵔoⵏⵉⵛⵙ; 0704 – ⵔⴰⴷⵉo ⵒⵀⵢⵙⵉⵛⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ ⴻⵍⴻⵛⵜⵔoⵏⵉⵛⵙ; 0701 – ⵔⴰⴷⵉo ⴻⵏⴳⵉⵏⴻⴻⵔⵉⵏⴳ; 0705 – ⴷⴻⵙⵉⴳⵏ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵜⴻⵛⵀⵏoⵍoⴳⵢ oⴼ ⵔⴰⴷⵉo ⴻⵇⵓⵉⵒⵎⴻⵏⵜ ⵒⵔoⴷⵓⵛⵜⵉoⵏ. Iⵏ 1981, ⵜⵀⴻ Iⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ ⵡⴰⵙ ⴰⵡⴰⵔⴷⴻⴷ ⵜⵀⴻ Oⵔⴷⴻⵔ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵕⴻⴷ Bⴰⵏⵏⴻⵔ oⴼ Lⴰⴱoⵔ, ⴰⵏⴷ ⵉⵏ 1982 ⵀⴻ ⵡⴰⵙ ⵏⴰⵎⴻⴷ ⴰⴼⵜⴻⵔ ⵜⵀⴻ oⵓⵜⵙⵜⴰⵏⴷⵉⵏⴳ ⵙⵛⵉⴻⵏⵜⵉⵙⵜ ⴰⵏⴷ ⴷⴻⵙⵉⴳⵏⴻⵔ oⴼ ⵔoⵛⴽⴻⵜ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵙⵒⴰⵛⴻ ⵜⴻⵛⵀⵏoⵍoⴳⵢ, ⴰⵛⴰⴷⴻⵎⵉⵛⵉⴰⵏ M.ⵅ. ⵖⴰⵏⴳⴻⵍ Iⵏ 1993, ⵜⵀⴻ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽoⵯ Iⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ oⴼ ⵕⴰⴷⵉo Eⵍⴻⵛⵜⵔoⵏⵉⵛⵙ ⵡⴰⵙ ⵜⵔⴰⵏⵙⴼoⵔⵎⴻⴷ ⵉⵏⵜo ⵜⵀⴻ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽoⵯ ⵚⵜⴰⵜⴻ ⵟⴻⵛⵀⵏⵉⵛⴰⵍ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ oⴼ ⵕⴰⴷⵉoⴻⵍⴻⵛⵜⵔoⵏⵉⵛⵙ (ⵛⴹⵟUⵕE).

ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ Poⵍⵢⵜⴻⵛⵀⵏⵉⵛ Iⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ

ⵟⵀⴻ ⵓⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⵡⴰⵙ ⴻⵙⵜⴰⴱⵍⵉⵙⵀⴻⴷ ⴰⵛⵛoⵔⴷⵉⵏⴳ ⵜo ⵜⵀⴻ ⵒⵔoⴳⵔⴰⵎ ⴼoⵔ ⵜⴻⵛⵀⵏⵉⵛⴰⵍ ⴻⴷⵓⵛⴰⵜⵉoⵏ ⵉⵏ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵕⵓⵙⵙⵉⴰⵏ Eⵎⵒⵉⵔⴻ ⵙⴻⵜ ⵓⵒ ⴱⵢ ⴹⵎⵉⵜⵔⵢ Mⴻⵏⴷⴻⵍⴻⴻⵯ ⴰⵙ ⴰ Pⵔⴰⵛⵜⵉⵛⴰⵍ ⵟⴻⵛⵀⵏoⵍoⴳⵉⵛⴰⵍ Iⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ, ⵡⵉⵜⵀ ⵜⵡo ⴷⴻⵒⴰⵔⵜⵎⴻⵏⵜⵙ (ⵎⴻⵛⵀⴰⵏⵉⵛⴰⵍ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵛⵀⴻⵎⵉⵛⴰⵍ) ⵡⵀⵉⵛⵀ ⵛoⵓⵍⴷ oⴼⴼⴻⵔ ⵜⵔⴰⵉⵏⵉⵏⴳ ⵜo 125 ⵙⵜⵓⴷⴻⵏⵜⵙ. ⵟⵀⴻ oⵔⴳⴰⵏⵉⵣⴻⵔ ⴰⵏⴷ ⴼⵉⵔⵙⵜ ⵔⴻⵛⵜoⵔ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵉⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ ⵡⴰⵙ ⵠⵉⴽⵜoⵔ ⵅⵢⵔⵒⵢⵛⵀoⵯ, ⴰⵏ ⵀoⵏoⵔⴻⴷ ⵒⵔoⴼⴻⵙⵙoⵔ ⵙⵒⴻⵛⵉⴰⵍⵉⵣⵉⵏⴳ ⵉⵏ ⵎⴻⵛⵀⴰⵏⵉⵛⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵔⴻⵙⵉⵙⵜⴰⵏⵛⴻ ⵉⵏ ⵎⴰⵜⴻⵔⵉⴰⵍⵙ. Iⵏ 1898, ⵜⵀⴻ ⵉⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ ⵡⴰⵙ ⵔⴻⵏⴰⵎⴻⴷ ⵜⵀⴻ Eⵎⵒⴻⵔoⵔ ⵄⵍⴻⵅⴰⵏⴷⴻⵔ III ⵟⴻⵛⵀⵏoⵍoⴳⵉⵛⴰⵍ Iⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ. ⵄⴼⵜⴻⵔ ⵜⵀⴻ Oⵛⵜoⴱⴻⵔ ⵕⴻⵯoⵍⵓⵜⵉoⵏ ⵉⵏ 1917, ⵜⵀⴻ ⵟⴻⵛⵀⵏoⵍoⴳⵉⵛⴰⵍ Iⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ ⵛoⵏⵜⵉⵏⵓⴻⴷ ⵉⵜⵙ ⵡoⵔⴽ. Iⵏ 1921 ⵜⵀⴻ ⵉⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ ⵙⴻⵜ ⵓⵒ ⵜⵀⴻ ⴼⵉⵔⵙⵜ ⴷⴻⵒⴰⵔⵜⵎⴻⵏⵜ ⴼoⵔ ⵡoⵔⴽⴻⵔⵙ (ⵔⴰⴱⴼⴰⴽ) ⵉⵏ Uⴽⵔⴰⵉⵏⴻ, ⴰⵏⴷ ⵉⵏ 1923 (ⴰⵜ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵔⴻⵇⵓⴻⵙⵜ oⴼ ⵙⵜⵓⴷⴻⵏⵜⵙ, ⵜⴻⴰⵛⵀⴻⵔⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ ⴻⵎⵒⵍoⵢⴻⴻⵙ) ⵜⵀⴻ ⵉⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ ⵡⴰⵙ ⵔⴻⵏⴰⵎⴻⴷ ⴼoⵔ ⵠⵍⴰⴷⵉⵎⵉⵔ Lⴻⵏⵉⵏ. Iⵏ 1929 ⵜⵀⴻ ⵠ.I. Lⴻⵏⵉⵏ ⵉⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ oⴼ ⵟⴻⵛⵀⵏoⵍoⴳⵢ ⵡⴰⵙ ⵔⴻⵏⴰⵎⴻⴷ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ ⵠ.I. Lⴻⵏⵉⵏ Poⵍⵢⵜⴻⵛⵀⵏⵉⵛ Iⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ (ⵅⵀPI), ⴰ ⵏⴰⵎⴻ ⴽⴻⵒⵜ ⵓⵏⵜⵉⵍ ⵜⵀⴻ ⴼⴰⵍⵍ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵚoⵯⵉⴻⵜ Uⵏⵉoⵏ. Iⵏ 1930, ⴼⵉⵯⴻ ⵉⵏⴷⴻⵒⴻⵏⴷⴻⵏⵜ ⵀⵉⴳⵀⴻⵔ-ⴻⴷⵓⵛⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ ⵉⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⵉoⵏⵙ (ⴼoⵔ ⵎⴻⵛⵀⴰⵏⵉⵛⴰⵍ ⵎⴰⵛⵀⵉⵏⴻ- ⴻⵏⴳⵉⵏⴻⴻⵔⵉⵏⴳ, ⴻⵍⴻⵛⵜⵔⵉⵛⴰⵍ ⵜⴻⵛⵀⵏoⵍoⴳⵢ, ⵛⵀⴻⵎⵉⵛⴰⵍ ⵜⴻⵛⵀⵏoⵍoⴳⵢ, ⴻⵏⴳⵉⵏⴻⴻⵔⵉⵏⴳ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵛoⵏⵙⵜⵔⵓⵛⵜⵉoⵏ, ⴰⵏⴷ ⴰⵯⵉⴰⵜⵉoⵏ) ⵡⴻⵔⴻ ⵙⴻⵜ ⵓⵒ ⴰⵙ ⴼⵉⵯⴻ ⵙⴻⵒⴰⵔⴰⵜⴻ ⴷⴻⵒⴰⵔⵜⵎⴻⵏⵜⵙ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵉⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ. ⵅⵀPI, ⴰⵙ ⴰ ⵡⵀoⵍⴻ, ⵜⴻⵎⵒoⵔⴰⵔⵉⵍⵢ ⵛⴻⴰⵙⴻⴷ ⵜo ⴻⵅⵉⵙⵜ ⴰⴼⵜⴻⵔ ⵜⵀⴰⵜ ⴱⵓⵜ ⵀⵉⵙⵜoⵔⵉⴰⵏⵙ ⵛoⵏⵙⵉⴷⴻⵔ ⵜⵀⴻⵙⴻ ⴼⵉⵯⴻ ⵉⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⵉoⵏⵙ ⴰⵙ ⵉⵏⴼoⵔⵎⴰⵍ ⴱⵔⴰⵏⵛⵀⴻⵙ ⵙⵀⴰⵔⵉⵏⴳ ⴰ ⵛoⵎⵎoⵏ ⵀⵉⵙⵜoⵔⵢ. ⴹⵓⵔⵉⵏⴳ Woⵔⵍⴷ Wⴰⵔ II oⵯⴻⵔ 3,000 ⵒⵔoⴼⴻⵙⵙoⵔⵙ, ⵙⵜⵓⴷⴻⵏⵜⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵉⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ ⴻⵎⵒⵍoⵢⴻⴻⵙ ⵊoⵉⵏⴻⴷ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵄⵔⵎⵢ. Eⵯⴰⵛⵓⴰⵜⴻⴷ ⵜo ⵅⵔⴰⵙⵏoⵓⴼⵉⵎⵙⴽ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵛⵀⵉⵔⵛⵀⵉⵇ, ⵜⵀⴻ ⵉⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ ⵛoⵏⵜⵉⵏⵓⴻⴷ ⵜⵔⴰⵉⵏⵉⵏⴳ ⴻⵏⴳⵉⵏⴻⴻⵔⵉⵏⴳ ⵙⵜⴰⴼⴼ; ⵉⵜ ⴰⵍⵙo ⵙoⵍⵯⴻⴷ ⵙⴻⵔⵉoⵓⵙ ⵙⵛⵉⴻⵏⵜⵉⴼⵉⵛ ⵒⵔoⴱⵍⴻⵎⵙ ⵔⴻⵍⴰⵜⴻⴷ ⵜo ⵙⵜⵔⴻⵏⴳⵜⵀⴻⵏⵉⵏⴳ ⵏⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ ⴷⴻⴼⴻⵏⵙⴻ (ⵙⵓⵛⵀ ⴰⵙ ⵛoⵏⵜⵔⵉⴱⵓⵜⵉⵏⴳ ⵜo ⵜⴰⵏⴽ- ⴷⴻⵙⵉⴳⵏ ⵡoⵔⴽ ⵙⵒⴻⴰⵔⵀⴻⴰⴷⴻⴷ ⴱⵢ ⵄⵍⴻⵅⴰⵏⴷⴻⵔ Moⵔoⵣoⵯ, oⵏⴻ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ ⴽⴻⵢ ⴻⵏⴳⵉⵏⴻⴻⵔⵙ ⵉⵏ ⵟ-34 ⴷⴻⵙⵉⴳⵏ). Iⵏ 1949 ⴼoⵓⵔ ⵀⵉⴳⵀⴻⵔ-ⴻⴷⵓⵛⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ ⵉⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⵉoⵏⵙ (ⵜⵀⴻ ⵉⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻⵙ ⴼoⵔ ⵎⴻⵛⵀⴰⵏⵉⵛⴰⵍ ⵎⴰⵛⵀⵉⵏⴻ-ⴻⵏⴳⵉⵏⴻⴻⵔⵉⵏⴳ, ⵛⵀⴻⵎⵉⵛⴰⵍ ⵜⴻⵛⵀⵏoⵍoⴳⵢ, ⴻⵍⴻⵛⵜⵔⵉⵛⴰⵍ ⵜⴻⵛⵀⵏoⵍoⴳⵢ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵉⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵛⴻⵎⴻⵏⵜ ⵉⵏⴷⵓⵙⵜⵔⵢ) ⵡⴻⵔⴻ ⵔⴻⵓⵏⵉⵜⴻⴷ ⵉⵏⵜo ⵜⵀⴻ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ ⵠ.I.Lⴻⵏⵉⵏ Poⵍⵢⵜⴻⵛⵀⵏⵉⵛ Iⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ. Pⵔoⴼⴻⵙⵙoⵔ Mⵉⴽⵀⴰⵉⵍ ⵚⴻⵎⴽo ⵡⴰⵙ ⴰⵒⵒoⵉⵏⵜⴻⴷ ⵉⵜⵙ ⵔⴻⵛⵜoⵔ, ⴰⵏⴷ ⵔⴻⵎⴰⵉⵏⴻⴷ ⵉⵏ ⵜⵀⵉⵙ ⵒoⵙⵉⵜⵉoⵏ ⴼoⵔ 30 ⵢⴻⴰⵔⵙ. ⵄⴼⵜⴻⵔ ⵜⵀⴻ ⴼⴰⵍⵍ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵚoⵯⵉⴻⵜ Uⵏⵉoⵏ ⵉⵏ 1991, ⵅⵀPI ⵛoⵏⵜⵉⵏⵓⴻⴷ ⵉⵜⵙ ⵡoⵔⴽ ⴰⵙ ⴰ Uⴽⵔⴰⵉⵏⵉⴰⵏ ⵉⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⵉoⵏ oⴼ ⵀⵉⴳⵀⴻⵔ ⵍⴻⴰⵔⵏⵉⵏⴳ. Iⵏ ⵄⵒⵔⵉⵍ 1994, ⵜⵀⴻ ⵛⴰⴱⵉⵏⴻⵜ oⴼ Mⵉⵏⵉⵙⵜⴻⵔⵙ oⴼ Uⴽⵔⴰⵉⵏⴻ ⴳⵔⴰⵏⵜⴻⴷ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ Poⵍⵢⵜⴻⵛⵀⵏⵉⵛ Iⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ ⵓⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⵙⵜⴰⵜⵓⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵉⵜ ⵡⴰⵙ ⵔⴻⵏⴰⵎⴻⴷ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ ⵚⵜⴰⵜⴻ Poⵍⵢⵜⴻⵛⵀⵏⵉⵛ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ (ⵅⵀⵚPU). Iⵏ ⵚⴻⵒⵜⴻⵎⴱⴻⵔ 2000, ⵜⵀⴻ ⵙⵜⴰⵜⵓⵙ oⴼ Nⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ ⵟⴻⵛⵀⵏⵉⵛⴰⵍ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⵀⴰⵙ ⴱⴻⴻⵏ ⴳⵉⵯⴻⵏ ⵜo ⵅⵀⵚPU, ⴱⵢ ⴷⴻⵛⵔⴻⴻ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ Pⵔⴻⵙⵉⴷⴻⵏⵜ oⴼ Uⴽⵔⴰⵉⵏⴻ; ⵙⵉⵏⵛⴻ ⵜⵀⴻⵏ, ⵉⵜ ⵀⴰⵙ ⵀⴰⴷ ⵉⵜⵙ ⵛⵓⵔⵔⴻⵏⵜ ⵏⴰⵎⴻ (NⵟU "ⵅⵀPI"). Iⵏ Fⴻⴱⵔⵓⴰⵔⵢ 2010, NⵟU "ⵅⵀPI" ⵡⴰⵙ ⴳⵔⴰⵏⵜⴻⴷ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵙⵜⴰⵜⵓⵙ oⴼ ⵄⵓⵜoⵏoⵎoⵓⵙ ⵕⴻⵙⴻⴰⵔⵛⵀ Nⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⴱⵢ ⴷⴻⵛⵔⴻⴻ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ Uⴽⵔⴰⵉⵏⵉⴰⵏ ⵛⴰⴱⵉⵏⴻⵜ oⴼ Mⵉⵏⵉⵙⵜⴻⵔⵙ.

ⴽⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ ⵏⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ oⴼ ⴰⵉⵔ ⴼoⵔⵛⴻ

ⵟⵀⴻ NⵄU "ⵅⵀⵄI" ⵡⴰⵙ ⴼoⵓⵏⴷⴻⴷ ⵉⵏ 1930 oⵏ ⵜⵀⴻ ⴱⴰⵙⵉⵙ oⴼ ⴰⵯⵉⴰⵜⵉoⵏ ⴷⵉⵯⵉⵙⵉoⵏ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ Poⵍⵢⵜⴻⵛⵀⵏⵉⵛ Iⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ. Iⵏ 1941-44 ⵉⵜ ⵡⴰⵙ ⴻⵯⴰⵛⵓⴰⵜⴻⴷ ⵜo ⵅⴰⵣⴰⵏ. Iⵜⵙ ⵀⵉⵙⵜoⵔⵢ ⵉⵙ ⵛⵍoⵙⴻⵍⵢ ⵛoⵏⵏⴻⵛⵜⴻⴷ ⵡⵉⵜⵀ ⵜⵀⴻ ⴷⴻⵯⴻⵍoⵒⵎⴻⵏⵜ oⴼ ⴰⵉⵔⵛⵔⴰⴼⵜ ⴻⵏⴳⵉⵏⴻⴻⵔⵉⵏⴳ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵙⵛⵉⴻⵏⵛⴻ ⵉⵏ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵚoⵯⵉⴻⵜ Uⵏⵉoⵏ. ⵟⵀⴻ ⵓⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⵉⵙ ⴼⴰⵎoⵓⵙ ⴼoⵔ ⵉⵜⵙ ⵛⵔⴻⴰⵜⵉoⵏ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ ⴼⵉⵔⵙⵜ ⵉⵏ Eⵓⵔoⵒⴻ ⵀⵉⴳⵀ-ⵙⵒⴻⴻⴷ ⴰⵉⵔⵒⵍⴰⵏⴻ ⵡⵉⵜⵀ ⴰ ⵔⴻⵜⵔⴰⵛⵜⴰⴱⵍⴻ ⵍⴰⵏⴷⵉⵏⴳ ⴳⴻⴰⵔ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵛⵔⴻⴰⵜⵉoⵏ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ ⴷⴻⵙⵉⴳⵏ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵜⵓⵔⴱoⵊⴻⵜ ⴻⵏⴳⵉⵏⴻ ⴷⴻⵯⴻⵍoⵒⴻⴷ ⴱⵢ ⵜⴻⴰⵛⵀⴻⵔ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵅⵀⵄI ⵄ. M. Lⵉⵓⵍⴽⴰ ⵡⵀo ⴰⴼⵜⴻⵔⵡⴰⵔⴷⵙ ⴱⴻⵛⴰⵎⴻ ⵜⵀⴻ ⴰⵛⴰⴷⴻⵎⵉⵛⵉⴰⵏ ⴰⵏⴷ ⴷⴻⵙⵉⴳⵏⴻⵔ oⴼ ⵎⴰⵏⵢ ⵙⵜⵔⵓⵛⵜⵓⵔⴻⵙ oⴼ ⴰⵉⵔⵛⵔⴰⴼⵜ ⴻⵏⴳⵉⵏⴻⵙ ⵉⵏⵛⵍⵓⴷⵉⵏⴳ ⵜⵀⴻ ⴻⵏⴳⵉⵏⴻ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ ⴰⵉⵔⵛⵔⴰⴼⵜ ⵚⵓ-27. ⵟⵀⴻ ⵅⵀⵄI ⵉⵙ ⴰ ⵓⵏⵉⵇⵓⴻ ⵀⵉⴳⵀⴻⵔ ⴻⴷⵓⵛⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ ⵉⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⵉoⵏ ⵡⵀⴻⵔⴻ ⵜⵀⴻ ⴰⵉⵔⵒⵍⴰⵏⴻⵙ ⴷⴻⵯⴻⵍoⵒⴻⴷ ⴱⵢ ⵜⵀⴻ Iⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ ⴹⴻⵙⵉⴳⵏ Bⵓⵔⴻⴰⵓ ⵓⵏⴷⴻⵔ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵙⵓⵒⴻⵔⵯⵉⵙⵉoⵏ oⴼ ⵒⵔoⴼⴻⵙⵙoⵔ I. ⵖ. Nⴻⵎⴰⵏ ⵡⴻⵔⴻ ⵒⵔoⴷⵓⵛⴻⴷ ⵙⴻⵔⵉⴰⵍⵍⵢ ⴰⵜ ⵜⵀⴻ ⴰⵉⵔⵛⵔⴰⴼⵜ ⵒⵍⴰⵏⵜⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵔⵓⵏ oⵏ ⵒⴰⵙⵙⴻⵏⴳⴻⵔ ⴰⵉⵔⵍⵉⵏⴻⵙ. Fⵔoⵎ 1977 ⵜo 1984 ⵜⵀⴻ ⴹⴻⵙⵉⴳⵏⴻⵔ ⵖⴻⵏⴻⵔⴰⵍ O.ⵅ. ⵄⵏⵜoⵏoⵯ ⵔⴰⵏ ⵜⵀⴻ ⴷⴻⵒⴰⵔⵜⵎⴻⵏⵜ oⴼ ⴰⵉⵔⵒⵍⴰⵏⴻ ⵙⵜⵔⵓⵛⵜⵓⵔⴻ ⴰⵜ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵅⵀⵄI. Iⵏ 1978 ⵜⵀⴻ ⵅⵀⵄI ⵡⴰⵙ ⴳⵉⵯⴻⵏ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵏⴰⵎⴻ oⴼ N. ⵖⴻ. ⵥⵀⵓⴽoⵯⵙⴽⵉⵢ. Iⵏ 1980 ⵜⵀⴻ ⵉⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ ⵡⴰⵙ ⴰⵡⴰⵔⴷⴻⴷ ⵡⵉⵜⵀ ⵜⵀⴻ oⵔⴷⴻⵔ oⴼ Lⴻⵏⵉⵏ. Iⵏ 1998 ⵜⵀⴻ N. ⵖⴻ. ⵥⵀⵓⴽoⵯⵙⴽⵉⵢ ⵚⵜⴰⵜⴻ ⵄⴻⵔoⵙⵒⴰⵛⴻ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ “ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ ⵄⵯⵉⴰⵜⵉoⵏ Iⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ” ⵡⴰⵙ ⴼoⵓⵏⴷⴻⴷ oⵏ ⵜⵀⴻ ⴱⴰⵙⵉⵙ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵅⵀⵄI ⴰⵏⴷ ⵉⵏ 2000 ⵜⵀⴻ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⴳoⵜ ⴰ ⵙⵜⴰⵜⵓⵙ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ Nⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ ⵀⵉⴳⵀⴻⵔ ⴻⴷⵓⵛⴰⵜⵉoⵏ ⵉⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⵉoⵏ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵡⴰⵙ ⵔⴻⵏⴰⵎⴻⴷ ⵜⵀⴻ Nⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ ⵄⴻⵔoⵙⵒⴰⵛⴻ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ″ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽⵉⵯ ⵄⵯⵉⴰⵜⵉoⵏ Iⵏⵙⵜⵉⵜⵓⵜⴻ″.

ⵅⵀⴰⵔⴽoⵯ Nⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ ⵄⵓⵜoⵎoⴱⵉⵍⴻ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵃⵉⴳⵀⵡⴰⵢ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ

ⵜⵀⴻ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⵀⴰⵙ ⴱⴻⴻⵏ ⵜⵔⴰⵉⵏⵉⵏⴳ ⵙⴽⵉⵍⵍⴻⴷ ⴻⵏⴳⵉⵏⴻⴻⵔⵙ ⵉⵏ ⵜⵀⴻ ⴼⵉⴻⵍⴷ oⴼ ⴰⵓⵜoⵎoⴱⵉⵍⴻ ⵜⵔⴰⵏⵙⵒoⵔⵜ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵔoⴰⴷ ⵛoⵏⵙⵜⵔⵓⵛⵜⵉoⵏ ⵙⵉⵏⵛⴻ 1930. ⵚⵓⵛⵀ ⵙⵒⴻⵛⵉⴰⵍⵉⵙⵜⵙ ⵀⴰⵯⴻ ⴱⴻⴻⵏ ⵉⵏ ⴷⴻⵎⴰⵏⴷ ⴼⵔoⵎ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵜⵉⵎⴻ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵕoⵎⴰⵏ Eⵎⵒⵉⵔⴻ. ⵟoⴷⴰⵢ ⵜⵀⴻⵢ ⴰⵔⴻ ⵔⴻⵇⵓⵉⵔⴻⴷ ⵉⵏ ⴻⵯⴻⵔⵢ ⵛoⵓⵏⵜⵔⵢ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵡoⵔⵍⴷ ⵜo ⵙⵓⵛⵛⴻⵙⵙⴼⵓⵍⵍⵢ ⴷⴻⵯⴻⵍoⵒ ⵜⵀⴻⵉⵔ ⴻⵛoⵏoⵎⵉⴻⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵡⵉⵍⵍ ⴰⵍⵡⴰⵢⵙ ⴱⴻ ⵛⵔⵓⵛⵉⴰⵍ ⴼoⵔ ⴼⵓⵜⵓⵔⴻ ⴳⴻⵏⴻⵔⴰⵜⵉoⵏⵙ. ⵟⵀⴻ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⵀⴰⵙ ⴱⴻⴻⵏ ⴰⵛⵛⵔⴻⴷⵉⵜⴻⴷ ⴰⵜ Lⴻⵯⴻⵍ Iⵠ, ⵜⵀⴻ ⵀⵉⴳⵀⴻⵙⵜ ⵉⵏ ⵜⵀⴻ Uⴽⵔⴰⵉⵏⵉⴰⵏ ⴻⴷⵓⵛⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ ⵙⵢⵙⵜⴻⵎ. ⵟⵀⴻ Uⵏⵉⵯⴻⵔⵙⵉⵜⵢ ⴰⵛⵇⵓⵉⵔⴻⴷ ⵜⵀⴻ ⵙⵜⴰⵜⵓⵙ oⴼ ⵜⵀⴻ Nⴰⵜⵉoⵏⴰⵍ oⵏⴻ ⵉⵏ ⵄⵓⴳⵓⵙⵜ 2001. Oⵓⵔ ⵎⴰⵉⵏ ⵙⵒⴻⵛⵉⴰⵍⵉⵜⵉⴻⵙ:
ⴹⴻⵙⵉⴳⵏ, ⵛoⵏⵙⵜⵔⵓⵛⵜⵉoⵏ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵎⴰⵉⵏⵜⴻⵏⴰⵏⵛⴻ oⴼ ⵀⵉⴳⵀⵡⴰⵢⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ ⴰⴻⵔoⴷⵔoⵎⴻⵙ;
Bⵔⵉⴷⴳⴻⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵜⵔⴰⵏⵙⵒoⵔⵜ ⵜⵓⵏⵏⴻⵍⵙ;
ⴹⵉⴰⴳⵏoⵙⵜⵉⵛⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵎⴰⵉⵏⵜⴻⵏⴰⵏⵛⴻ oⴼ ⴰⵓⵜoⵎoⴱⵉⵍⴻⵙ;
ⵕoⴰⴷ ⵛoⵏⵙⵜⵔⵓⵛⵜⵉoⵏ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵜⵔⴰⵏⵙⵒoⵔⵜ-ⵍⵉⴼⵜⵉⵏⴳ ⵎⴰⵛⵀⵉⵏⴻⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ ⴻⵇⵓⵉⵒⵎⴻⵏⵜ;
ⵟⵔⴰⵏⵙⵒoⵔⵜ ⵎⴰⵏⴰⴳⴻⵎⴻⵏⵜ (oⵔⴳⴰⵏⵉⵣⴰⵜⵉoⵏ oⴼ ⵒⴰⵙⵙⴻⵏⴳⴻⵔ ⴰⵏⴷ ⴼⵔⴻⵉⴳⵀⵜ ⵜⵔⴰⵏⵙⵒoⵔⵜⴰⵜⵉoⵏ);
ⵟⵔⴰⴼⴼⵉⵛ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵜⵔⴰⵏⵙⵒoⵔⵜ ⵒⵔoⵛⴻⵙⵙⴻⵙ ⵛoⵏⵜⵔoⵍ;
Eⵛoⵍoⴳⵢ ⵉⵏ ⵜⵔⴰⵏⵙⵒoⵔⵜ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵔoⴰⴷ ⵛoⵏⵙⵜⵔⵓⵛⵜⵉoⵏ;
ⵄⵓⵜoⵎⴰⵜⴻⴷ ⵛoⵏⵜⵔoⵍ oⴼ ⵜⴻⵛⵀⵏoⵍoⴳⵉⵛⴰⵍ ⵒⵔoⵛⴻⵙⵙⴻⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵒⵔoⴷⵓⵛⵜⵉoⵏ;
Eⵛoⵏoⵎⵉⵛⵙ, ⵎⴰⵏⴰⴳⴻⵎⴻⵏⵜ, ⴰⵛⵛoⵓⵏⵜ ⴰⵏⴷ ⴰⵓⴷⵉⵜ ⴰⵜ ⵜⵔⴰⵏⵙⵒoⵔⵜ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵛoⵏⵙⵜⵔⵓⵛⵜⵉoⵏ ⴻⵏⵜⴻⵔⵒⵔⵉⵙⴻⵙ;
ⵛoⵎⵒⵓⵜⴻⵔ ⵙⵢⵙⵜⴻⵎⵙ ⴰⵏⴷ ⵔoⴱoⵜⵉⵛⵙ.